Chapter 1

Relevent Spinal Cord Anatomy

1.1     Basic Spinal Cord Anatomy

1.2     Segmental Spinal Anatomy

1.3     Meninges and Compartments

1.4     Spinal Vascular Anatomy

1.5     Cytoarchitectural Organization of Spinal Gray Matter

1.6     Relevent Spinal Cord Pathways

1.7     Relevant Spinal Cord Nuclei

1.8     Anatomy of Spinal-Mediated Myotatic reflexes


Chapter 2

Pathophysiology in Myelopathy and Spinal Cord Injury

2.1 Introduction to Pathophysiologic Mechanisms

2.2 Cellular, Ionic, and Biomolecular Mechanisms of Spinal Cord Injury

2.3 Stages of Spinal Cord Injury

2.4 Spinal Shock

2.5 Spinal Cord Edema

2.6 Ischemic Myelopathy

2.7 Myelomalacia

2.8 Cavitation and Gliosis

2.9 Spinal Cord Atrophy


Chapter 3

3.1 Spinal Cord Pathomechanics

3.2 Types of Spinal Cord Trauma

3.3 Vertebral Fracture, Dislocation, and Instability

3.4 Spinal Hemorrhage

3.5 Myelopathy and Disk Herniation


Chapter 4

Conditions Associated with Myelopathy

4.1  Degeneration and Stenosis

4.2 Expansile Lesions

4.3 Arteriovenous Malformations

4.4 Noncompressive Myelopathy

4.5 Congenital Spinal Anomalies

4.6 Chiari malformations

4.7 Klippel-Feil Syndrome

4.8  Scoliosis and Myelopathy


Chapter 5

Assessment of Spinal Cord Injury and Myelopathy

5.1  Spasticity, Paresis, Clonus and Myelopathy

5.2 Superficial Reflexes and Reflexes of Spinal Automatisms

5.3 Sensory Abnormalities

5.4 Spinal Cord Injury Pain

5.5 Neurogenic Claudication

5.7 Autonomic and Other System Considerations

5.8 Myelopathy and Associated Musculoskeletal Conditions

5.9 Electrodiagnostic Assessment

5.10 Diagnostic Imaging

5.11 Neurosonography

5.12 Computed Tomography

5.13 Plain Film Radiography

5.14 Quantitative Considerations in Spinal Cord Imaging

5.15 Functional and Laboratory Assessment


Chapter 6

Spinal Cord Syndromes and Guide to Neurological Levels

6.1 Vascular Syndromes of the Spinal Cord

6.2 Complete Spinal Cord Transection (Transverse Myelopathy)

6.3 Central Cord Syndrome

6.4 Anterior Cord Syndrome

6.5 Posterior Cord Syndrome

6.6 Anterior Horn Syndrome (Progressive Muscular Atrophy)

6.7 Multifocal Cord Syndrome

6.8 Cervical Medullary Syndrome

6.9 Hemisection Syndrome (Brown-Sequard Syndrome)

6.10 Cervical Medullary Syndrome

6.11 Guide to Neurological Levels





Chapter 7

Pathomechanisms for Radiculopathy

7.1 Spinal Nerve Root Anatomy and Regional Characteristics

7.2 Biomechnically Induced Radiculopathy

7.3 Spinal Degeneration and Radiculopathy

7.4 Fibrosis and Radiculopathy

7.5 Acquired Lateral Recess Stenosis ands Vascular Stasis

7.6 Failed Back Surgery Syndrome

7.7 Trauma and Radiculopathy

7.8 Intervertebral Disc Herniation and Radiculopathy

7.9 Nerve Root Compromise: Expansile Lesions

7.10 Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Discitis

7.11 Spondylolithesis and Radiculopathy

7.12 Noncompressive Radicloneuropathy


Chapter 8

Classic Sings and Symptoms of Radiculopathy

8.1 Sensory Abnormalities

8.2 Nerve Root Irritability Sings

8.3 Refelx Abnormalities

8.4 Paresis

8.5 Muscular Dystrophy

8.6 Dysautonomia and Trophic Changes

8.7 Combined Pain Syndromes: Radicular and Vertebrogenic Pain

8.8 Assessment of Radiculopathy

8.9 Cervical Monoradiculopathy Syndromes

8.10 Thoracic Monoradiculopsathy Syndromes

8.12 Cauda Equina Syndrome





Chapter 9

Relevant Anatomy, Pathophysiology, and Predisposing Factors for Peripheral Nerve Injury

9.1 General Organization of Peripheral Nerve Distribution

9.2 Cervical Plexus

9.3 Brachial Plexus

9.4 Lumbar Plexus

9.5 Lumbosacral Plexus

9.6  Autonomic Nervous System

9.7 Relevant Anatomy of the Peripheral Nerve

9.8 Peripheral Nerve Vascularity

9.10 Classification of Nerve Injuries

9.11 Peripheral nerve Response to Injury

9.12 Nerve Compression and Related Pathomechanisms

9.13 Myotendinous, Myofascial, and Related Contribution to Entrapment

9.14 Common Predisposing Disorders Associated with Entrapment Neuropathy


Chapter 10

Characteristic Signs and Symptoms of Entrapment

10.1 Assessment of Entrapment Syndromes

10.2 Proximal Upper Extremity Entrapment

10.3 Median Nerve Entrapment Nerve Syndromes

10.4 Posterior Upper Extremity Syndromes

10.5 Ulnar Nerve Syndromes

10.6 Abdominal/Pelvic Entrapment Syndromes

10.8 Summary


Section 4



Table 1: Clinical Considerations with Neurological Compromise below the Level of the Foramen Magnum

Table 2: Common Neuro-orthopedic Test and Signs

Table 3:A Upper Extremity Motor Innervation

Table3B: Lower Extremity Motor Innervation

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